Research | Insect Shield

Insect Shield: Tested & Proven


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Insect Shield Blanket


Overview


Insect Shield Introduction


Knockdown Testing Overview
Knockdown, or “KD,” testing is a widely accepted scientific laboratory methodology for determining the efficacy of insect repellent-treated textile products. Many recognized agencies utilize KD testing for this purpose, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). One of the advantages of KD testing is that no human subjects are exposed to insects. A repellent-treated textile sample is placed in an enclosed space containing insects for a specified time period, after which the sample is removed and the insects’ reaction is documented. 
 
 

Average knockdown is determined using at least 10 replicates of a particular species and wash combination. 



Ixodes scapularis is a carrier of Lyme disease.
Average knockdown is determined using at least 10 replicates of a particular species and wash combination. 
  
What are the benefits of Insect Shield vs. other forms of insect protection?
One advantage of using Insect Shield Apparel and Gear is that the repellency is long lasting, requiring no re-application. This convenience factor can be significant for many outdoor pursuits. Insect Shield protection is also odorless and invisible, and, unlike traditional insect repellents, the repellency is near your skin, instead of on it, which can help alleviate concerns about overuse or misuse of insect repellent. 
 
Summary of Evaluation of Potential Exposures and Health Risks Associated with Insect Shield Repellent Apparel
(BOIS Bio-Monitoring Study)
 
Sponsor: Insect Shield, LLC, Greensboro, NC                                                                                  
Performing Laboratory: Info Scientific Inc., Manassass, VA

In 2005, Insect Shield commissioned one of the most detailed studies ever conducted on the subject of dermal exposure to wearers of permethrin-treated clothing. The clothing tested was treated using the Insect Shield proprietary treatment process and the Insect Shield proprietary permethrin formula. Therefore, the resulting conclusions only apply to wearers of Insect Shield clothing, and are not representative of other permethrin treatment processes and formulas.   

Three analytical methods were used to determine transfer of permethrin from clothing onto the skin of the wearer: gauze wipe, whole body dosimeter, and hand wash. In addition, a urinary bio-monitoring study was performed to ascertain the level of permethrin absorbed into the body of the test subjects. This bio-monitoring evaluation is the “gold-standard” of assessment and created direct measures of exposure specific to the use of Insect Shield apparel. The data obtained from the four test methodologies are very well behaved. Each data set correlates with and corroborates the other data sets, strengthening the validity and soundness of the overall study.
  • Sixteen individuals between the ages of 39 and 66 were studied to conduct the analysis. Of the sixteen, 7 were females and 9 were males. 
  • The evaluation took place between the months of May and August, and was conducted in 3 locations: Saskatchewan, Canada, Creedmoor, North Carolina, and Durham, North Carolina.
  • All of the subjects wore complete sets of Insect Shield apparel for 7 to 10.5 hours per day. They participated in non-choreographed activities, mainly in the outdoors, which offered a high level of activity.
  • The clothing consisted of long-sleeve shirts and long pants made from various blends and weights of fabric. 
  • All diets were managed and monitored throughout the evaluation to prevent any of the results from being skewed.
  • The results were then extrapolated to determine the impact of long-term, prolonged use.
The study concluded that all measured levels of exposure were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) level of concern. The EPA concern level is considered to be a very conservative standard.
 
The study results also showed that garments treated using the proprietary Insect Shield formula and process yield permethrin exposure levels 182 times lower than exposure levels measured on garments treated with permethrin via a standard spray method. It is important to note that exposure levels associated with the standard spray method are well within the EPA’s acceptable limits. Furthermore, the standard spray method has been utilized since the late 1970s with an excellent safety record. 

In summary, these impressive results confirm that Insect Shield binds permethrin so tightly to fabric fibers that it remains in place—and does not transfer onto the skin or into the environment.

Pilot study assessing the effectiveness of long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing for the prevention of tick bites.

Journal: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

July 23, 2010 
Authors:

Vaughn, Meagan/Meshnick, Steven – University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Epidemiology

INTRODUCTION:

Tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever are a significant concern for many thousands of workers who have frequent and unavoidable exposure to tick infested habitats. Many North Carolina state employees with outdoor occupations report multiple tick bites each year, indicating that existing tick preventive strategies may be underutilized or ineffective. Treatment of clothing with permethrin, a nontoxic chemical with insecticidal, knockdown, and repellent properties, is

highly effective against ticks. However, most permethrin products must be reapplied after several washings in order to maintain insecticidal activity. Recently, a factory-based method for longlasting

permethrin impregnation of clothing has been developed by Insect Shield, Inc. which allows clothing to retain insecticidal activity for over 70 washes.

METHODS:

A nonrandomized open label pilot study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Insect Shield treated clothing for the prevention of tick bites among sixteen outdoor workers from the North Carolina Division of Water Quality under actual field conditions. Participants completed questionnaires at the start of follow-up (March, 2008) and at the end of follow-up (September, 2008), and tick bites and outdoor

work hours were reported on weekly tick bite logs for the entire follow-up period.

RESULTS:

Subjects wearing Insect Shield treated clothing had a 93% reduction (p<0.0001) in the total incidence of

tick bites compared to subjects using standard tick bite prevention measures.

The rate of tick bites acquired during work hours was reduced by approximately 99% (p<0.0001) among subjects wearing Insect Shield treated clothing.

CONCLUSION:

This study provides preliminary evidence that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing may be highly effective against tick bites. 

 

Scent Recognition Field Test Study – Whitetail Deer

Conducted by: Pell Kennedy – Avid Hunter

Purpose:
To determine if clothing treated with Insect Shield Repellent Technology will retain and emit any odor that could potentially alarm whitetail deer and alert them to an unnatural presence in their environment.

 
Study Overview:
Insect Shield treated clothing (3-D Leafy Camo, a fleece hood and cotton cap) was put on 2 mannequins that were placed in the woods of Eastern North Carolina where whitetail deer frequent.        

The clothing was washed with Scent-A-Way® detergent, dried with a Scent-A-Way Fresh Earth® dryer sheet and stored in a zip top bag. Note: No masking scent was added to the storage bag.
Also, tests studies reveal that Insect Shield efficacy and longevity is not impacted by odor masking detergent washes.     
                                                                                                                                                          

2 Mannequins were outfitted and placed in the woods 15 feet apart. Trail cameras with infrared sensors were set in place to capture the activity. Shelled corn was scattered in the area as bait.

This set-up was left undisturbed for four days.

Results:                                                                                                                                 
Numerous pictures reveal that the deer ventured within a few feet of the mannequins.                    


Results of this field study show that clothing treated with Insect Shield Repellent Technology do not emit any odor that alarms deer.